Directions: Apply to entire face morning and evening before heavier creams.
Contraindications: If topical Vitamin C is used as part of skincare, it should be applied at alternate times with this formula (ideally Vitamin C in the PM and this formula in the AM). Otherwise, Niacinamide can affect integrity of pure-form Vitamin C (L-Ascorbic Acid).
Ingredients: Aqua (Water), Niacinamide, Pentylene Glycol, Zinc PCA, Tamarindus Indica Seed Gum, Xanthan Gum, Isoceteth-20, Ethoxydiglycol, Phenoxyethanol, Chlorphenesin
Note: Due to the presence of zinc in this formula, most stabilizing technologies could not be used. The formula uses a naturally-derived, food-grade carrageenan to maintain stability. A single and highly-disputed study on degraded (and not food-grade) carrageenan had shown that ingestion of degraded carrageenan with high levels of poligeenan can lead to internal inflammation. No study has ever found that non-degraded (food grade) carrageenan would cause inflammation if ingested. Furthermore, carrageenan itself cannot penetrate the skin as its molecular size is far too big. It instead loses viscosity under any slight pressure (such as skin application) and allows for exposure of actives.
free, alcohol-free, oil-free,
silicone-free, gluten-free, nut-free,